American Hornbeam - Carpinus caroliniana ssp. virginiana
The common name "Hornbeam" refers to the close-grained, heavy wood, whereas "Musclewood" is derived from the sinewy, fluted trunk. The more northerly virginiana subspecies grows in the foothills of the Appalachians and other forested environments of the Northeast. The leaves are elliptic, up to 5 inches in length and have small, dark glands beneath. Hybridization with subspecies caroliniana occurs where the ranges of the two subspecies overlap. The trees flower in late spring, with separate male and female catkins borne on the same tree.